Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a fighter aircraft built on the Messerschmitt Bf 108 Taifun sports machine. This winged cabin and retractable undercarriage was one of the Luftwaffe backbone machines during the Second World War. At the end of this conflict, they began to be licensed in Spain under the name of Hispano Aviación Ha-1112 Buchón. The war films you can see include Battle of Britain, Memphis Beauty, Africa Star, and Red Tails.
In February 1934, Arado, Focke-Wulf, Heinkel, and Bayerische Flugzeugwerke from RLM received a request to develop a single-fighter aircraft to replace the obsolete Heinkel He 51 biplane. Bayerische Flugzeugwerke started with the design of Wilhelm E. Messerschmitt, Bf 109 already at the end of summer of the same year. The prototype, bearing the designation of the Bf 109 V1, flew for the first time on 28. May 1935 from the Ausburg factory. Paradoxically, it was powered by the British engine Rolls-Royce Kestrel V, as the German Junkers Jumo 210C engine was not yet available. Until 1936, the Nazi Ministry of Aviation was selected as the main Luftwaffe fighter, the company produced five prototypes.
The second pre-serial machine was already equipped with the Junkers Jumo 210A engine and the third was carrying a pair of synchronized machine guns MG 17. The Bf 109 V3, after taking off the fourth prototype, was sent to Spain, followed by 30. November V4. After testing in Travemünde, SC 10 was dropped from the concept of the internal So-3 bomb bomber because of the lack of SC 10. The last two specimens were equipped with adjustable metal propellers VDM. For heavy load and tight cockpits, these machines were not too popular at first.
About the first thirty prototypes and test aircrafts were labeled Bf 109A. They were equipped with a pair of MG 17 machine guns located at the top of the Jumo 210B, C and D engine cover. The prototype version B was a Bf 104 V4 prototype, and because there was no gun available for the propeller gun, a MG 17 gun was installed instead. however, his unreliability was often dismantled during the Spanish Civil War. For a type sometimes referred to as B-2, the original Schwartz wood propeller was replaced by the adjustable metal propeller VDM propelled by the Jumo 210D. Thanks to the performance of 680 hp, the machine could reach a maximum speed of 460 km/h.
From Casar after Zwilling
The Cäsar version powered the Jumo 210G engine, and its equipment consisted mostly of four MG 17 machine guns in the engine housing and the leading edge of the wings. Later, the MG FF cannon was added, which was mounted not only on the propeller axis but also on the fuselage. The export model Bf 109C (called Dora) on which were tested new machine guns MG 131, belonged at the beginning of the war among the best fighters in the world. However, these machines also had many disadvantages, such as frequent corking or poor longitudinal stability.
In the course of the Battle of Britain, the Emil variant appeared, which had a rectangular overhead cabin with front armor and other minor changes. It was based on prototypes Bf 109 V15 and V15A, which differed from the existing types mainly by three-liter VDM propeller, Daimler-Benz DB 601 engine and displacement of the glycol cooler in the projections on the lower surfaces of the wings. The following E-4/B models could also carry 500kg of a bomb. For combat over North Africa, E-4/Trop and E-7/Trop were produced. With these two modifications, the largest change was the increased dust filter on the left side of the engine and the fuse box for survival in desert conditions. The box contained water, food, medicine and the Mauser K.98k rifle. There were also photo-reconnaissance airplanes with Rb 50/30 cameras designated E-4/U, E-6/U and E-7/U.
Since the Emil version has reached its peak, the design office has begun to work for its successors. This was to become the Friedrich variant with the new 1350 hp DB 601E engine. The biggest changes to the airplane were the circular air intake on the left side, the removal of the horizontal tail, the strengthening of the rear of the hull, the propeller cone, which was now continuously linked to the outline of the engine cover and other interior modifications. Substantial changes were also seen in the wing, which was more oblique, thus increasing the bearing surface. Ailerons, slots on the leading edge were shortened, and the buoyancy flaps were changed. The lower slit coolers have moved further backward on the wings and have also been used to regulate the flow of air through the cooling radiators. A new addition to this model has become a semi-retractable sprocket. All these changes developed on prototypes Bf 109 V21-V25.
Luftwaffe has promised from the new version the acquisition of superiority over British Spitfires Mk.I. Friedrich was really in the spring of 1941, for RAF an unpleasant surprise. The only deficiency of this machine was the relatively weak armament, which consisted of MG 17 and 20 mm machine guns MG 151/20 in the propeller axis. At the beginning, the aircraft had big problems with the MG FF/M cannon jam, overheating the engine and breaking the back of the fuselage. Despite these initial problems, Friedrich became the most popular type, thanks to his balance of maneuverability and engine power. Just like the previous version E, it was also edited into the Trop version. From the F-2 version, the field kits were also used in the machines, and the machines were equipped with the GM-1 Anlage. This device has enabled a short-term increase in engine power thanks to direct injection of nitrous oxide. Due to the lack of Focke-Wulf Fw 190 machines and the slow development of the Messerschmitt Me 209 to replace these fighters, it was decided to continue the development of these aircrafts.
This was followed by the Gustav model in which the DB 605A was installed to increase performance. From the G-1/Trop version, the bulkhead protuberances covered the enlarged MG 131 machine guns. On the G-1/Trop version, the G-4 also differed with the larger wheels of the chassis and the G-5 in turn with a larger rudder. The most widespread version of the G-6 was characterized by stronger armament and its great variability. Typical configurations were two MG 151/20 under the wings, two MG 131 machine guns above the engine, and MK 108 cannula in the hollow shaft of the propeller. These machines could also carry an auxiliary tank, bombs or unguided missiles. The G-10 version differed from the previous types mainly through the so-called Galland cover. At the same time, it was also the most produced, as it accounted for roughly 60% of all these machines. Although she possessed very good equipment and equipment, she did not achieve any qualities such as the Emil and Friedrich versions. Landing with them was dangerous, and she needed constant attention during the flight. The version of the Bf 109F was also developed by version H, which had a wider span of 2 meters. However, the total number of pieces produced in this version is not yet known.
Making changes to the G version gave a new, more compact version of the Kurfürst, which already contained all the important changes of the previous model. The MG 151/20 cannula in the hollow propeller shaft replaced the MK 108 and thanks to the use of MW 50, this version was up to 730 km/h. As a result, it was the most powerful allied pistol fighter at the end of the war. Toni was derived from the Bf 109E. Tests were carried out on the prototype Bf 109 V17, equipped with four catapulte startup units, which were replaced by a Bf 109 V17a machine after the accident. The aim was to create in-flight fighters for Kriegsmarine aircrafts. The biggest change compared to the Emil type was the enlargement of the span to 11.08 m, the reinforcement of the construction at the location where the catapult and the landing hook were located. The wingspan in the folded state was 4.59 m. The armament of this version consisted of either four MG 17 machine guns or a pair of machine guns and a pair of wing guns MG FF.
The latest experimental version was the Bf 109Z, also called Zwilling. Basically, the two hulls of the aircraft were connected by a new centerline and horizontal tail surfaces. Four variants were proposed, the first of which was an overrun fighter armed with five cannons that could carry up to 1 000 kg of cargo of bomb. The other was a fighter bomber armed with two MK 108 cannons with the ability to carry up to two 1 000 kg of bombs. Both versions should be powered by the DB 605 engines. The third and fourth versions remained on paper only, but would probably be very similar to the first two designs. The only difference would be the type of engine installed to be Jumo 213. Only one specimen was built, but before the test flights began, it was damaged by the Allied bombing in 1943. The following year, the project was finally terminated.
Hispano Aviación Ha 1112 Buchón
In Spain, in 1942, Hispano Aviación, the airline, started to license the production of the Bf 109G machines marked as Hispano Aviación Ha-1112 Buchón. Together with the license, the company was promised 25 model aircraft Bf 109G-2, which, however, arrived in Spain incomplete. Messerschmitt supplied only hulls without tail surfaces, engines and propellers. The company has therefore decided to build new tail surfaces, install the Hispano Suiza HS-12Z-89 domestic engines into the kites and start serial production of aircraft.
The tailgate had to be reworked due to the reverse rotation of the engine and the machine was first flown on 2. March 1945. Due to sufficient spare parts, the planned production of two hundred units was increased by a further hundred aircraft. In early 1950, the HA-1109K-1L was launched with the military designation C-4J, which propelled the HS-12Z-17 with Propeller Havilland. There was no place to install weapons under the engine hood, so different versions of armament were tested. Breda machine guns were finally hung under the wings, and in 1951 the production began.
In the mid-1950s, he began developing a training two-seat airplane named HA-1110K-1L whose prototype had still installed the original Suiza HS-12Z-17 engine. However, the serial machines of this two-seater variant had already installed the legendary Rolls-Royce Merlin engines. Reworked, the armed HA-1112K-1L was equipped with a pair of Hispano HS-404 cannons mounted in the wings and 16 undersized unarmed Oerlikon missiles, eight on each side of the wing. Due to the weight increase resulting from these modifications, the above-mentioned HS-12Z-17 engine was installed, aerodynamic fins mounted on the wings, and the aircraft served only as a battleship. These aircraft, including the two-seat training versions HA-1110K-1L and HA-1112M-4L, were used by the Spanish Air Force until 1965.
In the Czechoslovakia, a large number of Messerschmitt Bf-109G and K unfinished machines remained after the war, including a substantial supply of various parts. Of these components, two Bf 109 G-12s and another twenty G-10 and K-4 engines were assembled in the Avia factory. The original designation of these roughly twenty-two aircraft was Avia C-10, which was later changed to the well-known Avia S-99. The first two-seat version (CS-99) took off on 20, June 1946. Unfortunately, the burning of the main warehouse in Krásné Březno, where de facto all the DB 605 engines mounted on the S-99 dragons, was the problem of replacing them .
Finally, it was decided to modify the original hull Bf 109 for the Jumo 211 engine (originally used in the Heinkel He 111 medium-sized bombers) including original propellers. Editing work began in Avia in the autumn of 1946, and the first airliner newly designated Avia S-199 took off on 25. April 1947, and since February 1948, the military began to take over the first series-produced aircraft. This year, 25 were also exported to Israel, where they served at the 101th Squadron under the name Sachin.
Since machines were very demanding not only for maintenance but also for piloting, they soon became the nickname of Mezek. She was guilty of a combination of several negative factors. The weaker and heavier reverse engine than the original DB-605 was just one of the problems. A lot of trouble was also caused by a heavy propeller that had a considerable inertia and a great torque, causing the S-199 to run out of the way. This was also one of the reasons why a two-seat training version, called the CS-199, was created. Another disadvantage of these propellers was the very width of their leaves, which left a much smaller firing field than the original propeller blades.
- Bf 109
- Bf 109V1 (2-6)
- Bf 109A
- Bf 109B
- Bf 109B-2
- Bf 109C-1 (2-4)
- Bf 109D
- Bf 109E-0
- Bf 109E-1 (1B)
- Bf 109E-2
- Bf 109E-3 (A,B)
- Bf 109E-4 (B,BN)
- Bf 109E-5
- Bf 109E-6N
- Bf 109E-7 (7N,7U1-3,7Z)
- Bf 109E-8
- Bf 109E-9
- Bf 109F-0 (1-2)
- Bf 109F-2U1
- Bf 109F-2U2
- Bf 109F-3 (4-6)
- Bf 109G-0 (1-6,8,10,12,14)
- Bf 109H-0
- Bf 109K-2 (3,4,6,8)
- Bf 109T-0 (1-2)
- Bf 109Z
- HA 1109J-1L
- HA 1109K-1L
- HA 1109M-1L
- HA 1110K-1L
- HA 1112K-1L
- HA 1112M-1L
- HA 1112M-4L
- Avia S-99
- Avia CS-99
- Avia S-199
- Avia CS-199
|Airplane type||Low wing|
|Engine power||1 084,8 kW|
|Wing area||16,05 m²|
|Available||12 000 m|
|Flying range||850 km to 1 000 km*|
|Capacity of bombs||1 x 250 kg or 4 x 50 kg|
|Capacity of missiles||2 x Wfr. Gr.21|
*with additional tanks
**optionally available with two MK 108 or MG 151/20 cannons in the hinged hinges