Iljušin Il-14 was a twin-engine multi-purpose aircraft, produced as a successor to the then-widespread Douglas DC-3 machines, its Russian license model Lisunov Li-2 and the older Il-12 type. In this essentially upgraded version of the previous type, only the original hull was retained. With a new wing with a smaller bearing surface including the tail surfaces, the interior design and the ground plan were changed. The airplane was powered by more powerful Svecov AS-82 T engines fitted with AV-50 propellers, new instrumentation and installation. Larger fuel tanks were moved from the center line to the outer parts of the wing, and the whole aircraft had a slightly more aerodynamic shape.
The first prototype piloted by Vladimir and Konstantin Kokkinaki took off on 20. September 1950 from the airport of Moscow Znamaja Truda. Testing was conducted in the years 1950-52 under various flight and climatic conditions and, after the end of the state exam in 1953, began to be serially produced under the designation Il-14P (Passazirskij). The Kazani factory also participated in the production. This airplane designed primarily for short routes had a seat arrangement for 18 passengers and Aeroflot lines were first deployed on 30. November 1954. Il-14P was also a model for the saloon model Il-14S, designed for the transport of important personalities.
The extension of the fuselage by 1 m arose in 1953 in the variant Il-14M (Il-14M-24) for 24 passengers. The seats in the interior were arranged in six rows, two on each side and an aisle in the middle. The following year, a new type (Il-14M-32) was developed for 32 passengers, which soon replaced the older type on the production lines. Later, Aeroflot workshops managed to increase this capacity to up to 36 seats. At that time, the older Il-14Ps were converted to more seat capacity, mostly for 28 people or the purely freight version of Il-14G (Georgia). For the needs of the Soviet Air Force, the Il-14T version with large freight doors with built-in roller crane on the left side of the fuselage was produced. Subsequently, the modification of Il-14D (Desantnyj) for the paratroopers with folding benches along the cabin walls was derived from it.
In 1955, when Avia was handed over to the company in Prague-Letňany together with the Il-14P sample piece, licensed production of these transport aircraft began in Czechoslovakia. The following year in the summer, therefore, the first aircraft, which was flown by Petr Široký and Václav Martínek on 14. August, left the gates of the company. Testing of this machine was carried out in VZLU from September 4 until 20. December of the same year. The second piece produced for the first time took off on 11. September of the same year and then sent for tests to the USSR. The third aircraft was first airborne on 27. September and then handed over to the Czechoslovak Air Force, as well as three other specimens. Until the first half of 1957, the production of 22 aircraft for the USSR took place.
This year, a total of five pieces of an improved Av-14-24 model with a modified interior for 22 to 24 people and an increased take-off weight were put in for CSA, which were gradually put into operation from the first half of June. Interestingly enough, the first OK-LCA matriculation at that time was static at the 22nd Paris Air Show Le Burget.
By the end of the 1950s, Czechoslovak Airlines ordered an Av-14-32 with an extended hull for 32 people. This model had a fully refurbished interior, including instrument and electrical equipment. Soon it started to produce a type for 40 passengers, which was named Av-14-40 or Av-14-32A. Over time, for the more economical way of arranging seats in ten rows along four adjacent and middle aisles, rebuilding all 32-seat aircraft at our airlines. At CSA, a total of 32 Av-14 aircraft have been in operation since the start of operation. The last specimens were obtained by ČSA in 1975, the three saloon models Av-14S from the government squadron. Unfortunately, in the same year, the last international flight (6. January 1975) took place in ČSA colors, the last domestic flight took place some years later on 31. March 1977. Czechoslovak Airlines then sold some machines to the Soviet Union, where they then flew in the colors of the Polar aviation.
The Av-14 Super was created thanks to the large modification of the previous type (Av-14-32). He managed to increase his take-off weight but at the same time reduce his empty weight. It was produced in three interior modifications. This was a 42-seat arrangement on short domestic routes, 36-seat on short international flights and 32-seat on medium-long international routes. The end wings for all three modifications were equally fitted with slim cigar-shaped sleeves with fuel tanks. Furthermore, all the side squares were replaced with the new ones, except for the first pair. The prototype flew for the first time in 1959. Version Av-14 Super-36 also served abroad in the Bulgarian society TABSO, Guinea Guinée Air, Aeroflot and Mongolia.
Since 1957, the transport version of the Av-14T for the Czechoslovak Air Force has also begun to develop in Avia, which was completed in October 1958. After the end of the factory tests, CSLA began gradually (in the years 1958-60) to take over roughly 60 ordered pieces. In 1960, the machine was delivered to the Military Air Force with the serial number 013167, which replaced the crashed 3149. Later was handed over to ČSA, where the OK-OCA matriculation served as postal and freight until its accident on 11. February 1977. In 1959 the Soviet Union took over 11 aircraft, Mongolia in the same year and Guinea in the following year also one. It was the last specimen of the Av-14T variant produced in the Avia summer races.
In 1966, the Czechoslovak Air Force ordered at the Aero Vodochody plant the reconstruction of a total of nine standard machines on the type for aerial imaging. This model, referred to as the Avia Av-14FG, had a significantly widened and richly glassed hull top with a navigator cab. It was possible to reach it by a narrow tunnel stretching along the right side, which was behind the other pilot’s back. This intervention in the design fundamentally changed the center of gravity of the whole airplane and it was therefore necessary to incorporate in the tail part the counterweight in the form of cast iron plates weighing 400 to 600 kg. Instead of the original interior (up to three original seats), two camera operators, a dark chamber where it was possible to recall captured images and an oxygen system designed for flights at altitudes above 5,000 m, were mounted in these spaces. One operator’s workplace was located on the front of the back and the other on the front port in front of three of the already mentioned tandem-arranged seats.
The viewers of two aerial cameras were placed in the airplane’s belly, slightly to the right of its longitudinal axis. Three more were prepared for AFA-BAF-40P Soviet-style cameras designed for oblique side scanning. The first one was located on the left side of the bow below the first square window, the other was installed at the bottom of the front door (on the right side), and the third had its left-side hull rear right on the opposite side of this entrance. The space in the floor shelves was then reserved for LMK-2000 cameras of East German production. Some old-fashioned but reliable Swiss RC-10 cameras were also used for some of the tasks.
- Il-14F (FK, FKM)
- Il-14 M
- Il-14S (SI, SO)
- Av-14 Super-32
- Av-14 Super-36
- Av-14 Super-42
- VEB Il-14P
- VEB Il-14T
|Crew||2 pilots, navigator, radio operator and steward|
|Airplane type||Low wing|
|Engine||2 x Švecov AŠ-82 T|
|Engine power||2 x 1 397 kW|
|Wing area||100 m²|
|Available||7 400 m|